Publications and Speeches

Selected Publications:


Downstream Oil Theft: Countermeasures and Good Practices Oil on the Water: Illicit Hydrocarbons Activity in the Maritime Domain Cover Image Downstream Oil Theft: Global Modalities, Trends and Recommendations Cover Image Downstream Oil Theft: Implications and Next Steps Cover Image Stable Seas: Caribbean

Articles and Op-eds:

Book Chapters:

  • Ian Ralby, “What Went Wrong When Regulating Private Maritime Security Companies,” in Operational Law in International Straits and Current Maritime Security Challenges, Chapter 8, Springer-Verlag: 2018.
  • Ian Ralby, “Approaches to Piracy, Armed Robbery at Sea, and Other Maritime Crime in West and Central Africa,” in Militarised Responses to Transnational Organised Crime: The War on Crime, Chapter 8, Palgrave Macmillam: 2017.
  • Ian Ralby, “The Montreux Document: The Legal Significance of a Non-Legal Instrument,” in Civilians at War: Controlling Private Military and Security Contractors, Chapter 10, Rowman & Littlefield: 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, “Private Military Companies and the Ius ad Bellum,” in The Oxford Handbook of The Use of Force in International Law, Chapter 53, Oxford University Press: 2015.

International Instruments:


Selected Speeches:

  • Ian Ralby, Moderator, “Gulf of Guinea – Improving Maritime Security,” NATO Hub, Virtual, Feb. 2021.
  • Ian Ralby, Moderator, “The Craft of Compromise: Racial Justice and How to Achieve It,” Henry Clay Center, Virtual, Feb. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, Series of Maritime Legal Lectures, Course for the Indian Navy, Gujarat National Law University, Virtual, Jan-March 2021.
  • Ian Ralby, Trent Lott, Tom Daschle, “The Craft of Compromise,” Henry Clay Center, Virtual, Jan. 2021.
  • Ian Ralby, “Evolving Challenges Facing African Navies,” Africa Seapower Symposium, Virtual, Dec. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Maritime Security in the Gulf of Guinea,” MarSec 20+ The Future of Port and Maritime Security, Virtual, Dec. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Security Implications of Organized Crime in the Fisheries Sector,” UNDP Blue Justice Initiative, Virtual, Oct. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, Moderator, “Promoting the Ratification/Implementation of MARPOL Annex VI,” MTCC Caribbean, Virtual, Oct. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Environmental Concerns About Oil on the Water – The FSO NABARIMA,” UNODC Caribbean Forum on Maritime Crime, Virtual, Oct. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Maritime Security Concerns in the MENA Region,” NATO Defence College, Virtual, Sep. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Closing the Land-Maritime Divide,” Defense Institute of International Legal Studies, Virtual, Sep. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Drug Trends,” and “Problem Solving Trends,” Obangame Express Naval Exercise (Gulf of Guinea), Virtual, Sep. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Caribbean Table Top Exercise on Maritime Trafficking,” National Center for State Courts, Aug. & Sep. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby “Unmasking Maritime Trends in the Caribbean Amid the Pandemic,” CARICOM IMPACS Security Conference, Virtual, Jul. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Indian Ocean Region Littoral Security – The Overlooked Opportunity,” U.S. Near East South Asia Center, Virtual, Jul 2020.
  • Ian Ralby “2-Day Table Top Exercise – Subregional Maritime Security Cooperation in the Eastern Caribbean,” Bridgetown, Barbados, Mar. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “3-Day Table Top Exercise – Interagency Action on Maritime Security in Indonesia,” UNODC Global Maritime Crime Programme, Jogjakarta, Indonesia, Jan. 2020.
  • David Soud, “Downstream Oil Theft – Countermeasures and Good Practices,” Atlantic Council Global Energy Forum Workshop, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Jan. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Downstream Oil Theft – Reviewing the Problem,” Atlantic Council Global Energy Forum Workshop, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Jan. 2020.
  • Ian Ralby, “Lessons from Africa for Global Maritime Security,” US Naval War College, Newport, RI, USA, Dec. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Regional Approaches to Maritime Security Cooperation – Other Models,” SOUTHCOM, Miami, FL, USA Nov. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Emerging Trends in the Strategic Security Space of the Caribbean and Latin America,” SOUTHCOM, Miami, FL, USA, Nov. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Models of Cooperation Relevant to Red Sea Arena Security,” Red Sea Arena Security Dialogue, Amman, Jordan, Nov. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “The Geography and Infrastructure of Transatlantic Trafficking,” German Marshall Fund’s Atlantic Strategy Group, Miami, FL, USA, Nov. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Table Top Exercise on Caribbean Regional Crime and Cooperation,” 8th Multilateral Maritime Interdiction and Prosecution Summit, Port of Spain, Trinidad & Tobago, Oct. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “The International Legal Framework for Submarine Cable Protection,” UNODC Maritime Legal Experts Meeting, Port Louis, Mauritius, Oct. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Engaging Civil Society on Maritime Security,” Global Maritime Security Conference, Abuja, Nigeria, Oct. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Concerning Trends in Maritime Insecurity,” US Naval War College, Newport, RI, USA, Sept. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Maritime Counter Terrorism,” Senior Level Maritime Policy Workshop, Phuket, Thailand, Sept. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Table Top Exercise on Maritime Counter-Narcotics,” OAS CICAD’s Group of Experts Meeting on Maritime Narcotrafficking, Nassau, Bahamas, Sept. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Maritime Governance in Indonesia,” Seskoal, Jakarta, Indonesia, Jul. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “Indonesian Maritime Institutions and the Changing Threat Environment,” Seskoal, Jakarta, Indonesia, Jul. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “A Vision for BAKAMLA,” BAKAMLA Headquarters, Jakarta, Indonesia, 25 Jul. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, Opening Plenary Speaker, “Current Trends in Illicit Oil and Fuel Activities,” 7th Seminar of European CUSTOMS Chemists: Combating Fraud through Cooperation and Innovation, European Commission, Budapest, Hungary, Jul. 2019.
  • Ian Ralby, “International Maritime Security Best Practices: A Source of Inspiration for NATO?,” Senior Executive Regional Conference 8, NATO Defence College, Rome, Italy, Jun. 2019. 
  • Rohini Ralby, “Fourchotomies,” A Day To Practice Workshop, Murray Edwards College, Cambridge, UK, May 2019. 
  • Ian Ralby, “Overlooked Maritime Security Concerns,” “The North African Cooperative Architecture” and “Gaps and Overlaps in the Maritime Security Architecture,” Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Enhancing Maritime Security in Africa: Whole-of-Africa Maritime DialogueWindhoek, Namibia, May 2019. 
  • Ian Ralby, “Emerging Threats and Trends in the Caribbean Sea,” Technical Working Group on Maritime Operational Strategy, Caribbean Basin Security Initiative, Bridgetown, Barbados, Apr. 2019. 
  • Ian Ralby, “The Legal Regime Applicable to Submarine Cables” and “Introduction of a Model National Submarine Cable Resilience Plan,” Developing a Model National Resilience Plan on Submarine Cables, UNODC, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Mar. 2019. 
  • Ian Ralby, “Managing and Securing Maritime Resources: The Challenges” and “The Way Ahead,” Cutlass Express Senior Leaders’ Seminar, Maputo, Mozambique, Feb. 2019. 
  • Ian Ralby, “Briefing on Undersea Cables Expert Meeting,” Vulnerabilities to Undersea Data Cables, UNODC, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Jan. 2019. 
  • Ian Ralby, “Moving Forward with Maritime Security in Africa,” CFMCC (one star admirals) Course, Italy, Dec. 2018.
  • Ian Ralby, “Maritime Crime in the Caribbean,” Regional UNODC Experts Meeting, El Salvador, Nov. 2018.
  • Rohini Ralby, Ian Ralby & David Soud, Technology for Maritime Security, Governance and Development in the Gulf of Guinea, I.R. Consilium, Freetown, Sierra Leone, Nov. 2018.
  • Ian Ralby, Keynote Speaker, “Catch and Release v. Frying the Big Fish — Ongoing Challenges in Achieving Legal Finish in Fisheries Enforcement,” Fisheries Conflict Symposium, One Earth Future Foundation, Denver, CO, Nov. 2018.
  • Ian Ralby, “Hydrocarbons Crime in Mexico,” Argus Mexican Refined Products Summit, Houston, Nov. 2018.
  • Ian Ralby, “Oil on the Water – A Look at Security Concerns Relating to Hydrocarbons Activity in the Maritime Domain,” Payne Institute Fall Seminar Series, Payne Institute – Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, Nov. 2018.
  • Ian Ralby, “Contaminated Bunker Fuel and MARPOL 2020,” Argus Bunker Fuel Summit 2018, Miami, FL, Oct. 2018.
  • Ian Ralby & David Soud, Co-chairmen & Speakers, Oil & Fuel Theft Summit, Oil & Gas IQPC, Geneva, Switzerland, Apr. 2018 (Two day major international conference built around I.R. Consilium’s work on oil and fuel theft).
  • Ian Ralby & David Soud, Launch Event for Oil on the Water: Illicit Hydrocarbons Activity in the Maritime Domain, Atlantic Council, Washington, DC, Apr. 2018.
  • Ian Ralby, Chairman & Speaker, Oil & Fuel Theft, UK Security Expo’s Maritime & Transport Security Conference, London, UK, Nov. 2017.
  • Ian Ralby, Securing the Blue Economy in Africa, ACSS, Washington, DC, Oct. 2017.
  • Ian Ralby, Fuel Theft and Our Unconscious Complicity, American Chamber of Commerce and OSAC, Warsaw, Poland, June 2017.
  • Ian Ralby, Downstream Oil Theft: Fueling Instability in Africa, AFSEC17 Maritime Security Summit, Casablanca, Morocco, May 2017.
  • Ian Ralby, “Testimony before the House Committee on Ways and Means of the Republic of the Philippines,” House of Representatives, Manila, Philippines, May 2017.
  • Ian Ralby, “Enough With the Threats: Moving Forward on Maritime Security in Africa,” Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Washington, DC, May 2017.
  • Ian Ralby, Launch Events for Downstream Oil Theft: Implications and Next Steps, IISS (London), Atlantic Council/Human Security Center/Institute of Commonwealth Studies (London), Atlantic Council/Human Security Center (Brussels), Atlantic Council/Human Security Center (Paris), Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime (Geneva), Atlantic Council (Washington, DC), Atlantic Council/Petroleum Club (Houston, TX).
  • Ian Ralby, “Countering Hybrid Maritime Aggression,” NATO COE CSW, Kiel, Germany, Mar. 2017.
  • Ian Ralby, Launch Event for Downstream Oil Theft: Global Modalities, Trends, and Remedies, Atlantic Council, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Jan. 2017.
  • Ian Ralby, “Practical Matters in Maritime Law and Security,” Indian Ocean Commission, Antananarivo, Madagascar, Dec. 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, “Securing the Blue Economy,” Wilton Park Conference on the Blue, Green and Digital Economy in Small States, Tortola, BVI, Nov. 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, “Options for Implementing Individually Tailored Roadmaps,” NATO Strategic Military Partnerships Conference, Bucharest, Romania, Oct. 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, “Human Rights in Maritime Security: State Action v. Private Action,” NATO COE CSW 4th Conference on Operational Maritime Law, Turku, Finland, Oct. 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, “Africa’s Maritime Security: Threats on the Horizon,” Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Washington, DC, June 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, “The Emerging Maritime Security Architecture,” Nigerian Navy’s Diamond Jubilee, Nigeria, May 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, “Contemporary Maritime Security Challenges,” Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Washington, DC, May 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, “Combating Illicit Trafficking,” Near East South Asia Center, Washington, DC, Mar. 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, “Elements of Maritime Strategy: Development,” Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Ghana, Mar. 2016.
  • Ian Ralby, Chairman and Speaker, Overcoming Maritime Security Challenges in Africa, AFSEC 15, Morocco, Dec. 2015.
  • Ian Ralby, “Maritime Law Disputes on the Horizon,” NATO COE CSW, Operational Maritime Law, Portugal, Sept. 2015.
  • Ian Ralby, “Henry Clay’s Legacy of Statesmanship,” Norfolk Historical Society, Virginia, Sept. 2015.
  • Ian Ralby, “The Strategic Significance of the Bosnian Maritime Domain,” NATO Defence College, Montenegro, Sept. 2015.
  • Ian Ralby, “The Future of Private Security Regulation,” EWDSC, Bulgaria, Apr. 2015.
  • Ian Ralby, “Regulating Private Security in the Caribbean,” CABSEC 15, Bahamas, Mar. 2015.